Saturday, May 30, 2020
Money Market in India Money market is an important segment of the financial market (system) as it provides avenue for equilibrating the short term (ranging from overnight upto an year) demand for and supply of funds. It also plays an important role in the transmission mechanism of monetary policy, as it acts as a medium through which the central bank can influence the short term liquidity and interest rates in the financial system. Till the mid 1980s the Indian money markets was characterized by scarcity of instruments, stringent regulations pertaining to participants and interest rates, lack of depth and liquidity. Another drawback in the Indian money market during this period was existence of a large number of lenders and only a few chronic borrowers. Infact the basic requirement of a liquid and deep market that the participants should rotate between borrowing and lending activity was missing. However RBI took many measures to deepen and widen the money market in accordance with the recommendations of the Committee to Review the Working of the Monetary System (Chairman: Professor Sukhamoy Chakravarty)  and the Working Group on the Money Market (Chairman: Shri N. Vaghul) . These measures included the deregulation of money markets interest rates, introduction of new money markets instruments such as certificates of deposits (June 1989), commercial paper (Jan 1990) etc. Also the RBI gradually eased the barriers to entry and initiated measure to increase the number of participants in the Money Market. RBI in a ssociation with the public sector banks and financial institution had set up the Discount and Finance House of India Ltd. (DFHI) in April 1988 in order to impart liquidity to the financial instruments. Thus financial innovations in terms of money markets instruments, broadening of participants base and strengthening of institutional infrastructure were undertaking during the 1990s based on the Vaghul Committees framework. Further during the late 1990s the Narasimham committee (1998) recommended rationalization of the money market by ensuring participation of different classes of entities in various segments of money market. RBI has over the years taken many structural measures and instrument-specific measures like transformation of call money market into pure interbank market, bringing down the minimum maturity of the CDs to 7 days etc. to develop the money market in pursuance of the Narasimham committee recommendations. Also a fullfledged liquidity Adjustment Facility was introduced on June 5, 2000 which replaced the traditional refinance suppo rt on fixed terms. The LAF was operationalised with a view to alter short term liquidity conditions as per the market conditions. In wake to strengthen the payment system infrastructure the Clearing Corporation of India Ltd. (CCIL) was formed in 2001. Also the introduction of the Negotiated Dealing System (NDS) in February 2002 and implementation of the Real Time Gross Settlement (RTGS) system in March 2004 further improved the efficiency in the money market. Improve These policy initiatives undertaken over time have led to the growth and sophistication of Indian money market, making it relatively deep, liquid and vibrant. Also the activity in all the segments of the Indian money market has increased significantly, especially during last few years. Currently the major segments of the Indian money market are Call (overnight) and Short-notice (up to fourteen days) Money Market Treasury Bills Market. Repos Market Term Money Market Collateralised borrowing and lending obligation (CBLO) Commercial Paper (CP) Certificates of Deposit (CDs) Money Market Mutual Funds (MMMFs) Among these, call and short-notice money and Treasury Bills form the most important segments of the Indian money market. Let us discuss each of these in brief: Call/Notice Money market The call money market is one of the most important and active segment of the Indian Money Market. Over the years RBI has taken many measures for development of the call/term money market. During the 1990s measures were taken to widen the participation of the call money market to include primary satellite dealers corporate (through primary dealers) in addition to the existing participants like commercial banks co-operative banks, LIC, UTI, etc. However the Narasimham committee recommended the conversion of the call/notice money market in a pure inter-bank market on prudential considerations and with an objective to improve the monetary transmission mechanism. Thus in accordance with the Narasimham committee recommendations (1998), measures were taken to convert the call market into a pure inter bank market starting in 1999. Simultaneously steps were taken to develop a repo market outside the official window for providing a stable collateralised avenue for deployment of funds by the non-banks following their phased exit from the call money market. Also introduction of instruments such as Collateralised Borrowing and Lending Obligation further provided the banks and non banks with a funding alternative. Consequently the call money market was transformed into a pure inter bank market in August 2005. Reflecting the conscious decision on the part of the RBI to make the call/notice money market a pure inter bank, the average daily turnover, which stood at around Rs. 351.44 bn in FY02, almost halved to Rs. 141.70 bn in FY04. However it increased in the subsequent years and was Rs.217.25 bn during FY07. The operational efficiency in the call money market was improved with the establishment of the CCIL and operationalisation of NDS. Furthermore the RBI made it mandatory for the all the NDS members to report all the call/notice money market transaction carried out through NDS within 15 minutes of winding up of the transaction. This helped in increasing effici ency, transparency and improve price discovery in the money market. In order to further increase the transparency and facilitate better price discovery CCIL developed a screen based negotiated dealing quote-driven system for all dealings in the call/notice and the term money markets (NDSCALL). This system was made operational on September 18, 2006. Further the RBI has over the years carried out many reform measures such as adoption of Liquidity Adjustment Facilities (LAF) etc. in order to impart stability in the call money market. In the 1990s the call rates were generally stable barring a few episodes of volatility. Tight liquidity condition in the call money market, backed by high levels of statutory pre-emptions and withdrawal of all refinance facilities except the export credit, led to firming up of the call rates during the beginning of FY92. Infact the call rate touched a peak of 35% in May 1992. After that the call rates eased for some period and again firmed up to touc h 35% in November 1995. This was partly a reflection of the turmoil in the foreign exchange market. Inorder to stabilize the market the RBI injected liquidity in the system through repos, increased refinance facilities and provided some respite by reducing the CRR. With RBI sucking out liquidity to ease foreign exchange market pressure the call rates, which had eased to single digit levels, again firmed up to 29% in January 1998. The adoption of the LAF in June 2000 has helped the call rates to ease. The call rate eased significantly to a low of 4.5 percent in September 2004, backed by improved liquidity conditions on account of increased capital inflows. However on account of IMD redemptions the call rates came under some pressure in December 2005. It increased to around 7% during Feb 2007 partly influenced by the tight monetary policy stance by the RBI to curb high inflation. With the initiation of the LAF and subsequent improvement in liquidity management a considerable deg ree of stability has been imparted in the call money market. Since then the volatility in call rates has reduced significantly. According to the RBI the mean rate has almost halved from around 11 per cent during April 1993-March 1996 to about 6 per cent during April 2000-March 2007. Volatility, measured by coefficient of variation (CV) of call rates, also halved from 0.6 to 0.3 over the same period. It is important to note here that the in the pre-reform period the statutory requirements like CRR and SLR and reserve maintenance period have been the main driver of the call rates. However in the recent years the developments in other market segments, mainly the foreign exchange and the government securities market accompanied by the Reserve Banks liquidity management operations have been the major factors influencing the call rates. This signifies increased market integration and improved liquidity management by the Reserve Bank. Term Money Market Term Money Market, which is market for short-term funds of maturity between 15 days to 1 year, is not very well developed in India. Till the late 1980s, the term money market was governed by stringent norms in terms of participants, regulated interest rates etc. However the RBI has taken many measures over the years to develop this market. The administered interest rate system was dismantled in 1989 following the recommendations of vaghul committee. Further in 1993 select financial institutions (IDBI, ICICI, IFCI, IIBI, SIDBI, EXIM Bank, NABARD, IDFC and NHB) were allowed to borrow from the term money market for 3-6 months maturity, however within a fixed limit set for each institution. Also Term money of original maturity between 15 days and 1 year was exempted from the CRR in August 2001. Although many measures were taken by the RBI to develop the term money market, the activity (as reflected in the daily turnover) in this segment of money market continues to remain low. The a verage daily turnover in the term money market has increased moderately from Rs.195 crore in FY02 to Rs.1,012 crore during FY07. The development of the term money market has been impeded by confluence of factors- (i) the inability of participants to build interest rate expectations over the medium term due to which there is a tendency on their part to lock themselves in the short-term; (ii) the distribution of liquidity is also skewed with public sector banks often having surplus funds and foreign banks being in deficit in respect of short-term resources. Since the deficit banks depend heavily on call/notice money, more often, surplus banks exhaust their exposure limits to them; (iii) corporates overwhelming preference for cash credit system rather than loan generally forces banks to deploy a large amount in the call/notice money market rather than in the term money market to meet sudden demand from corporates; (iv) the steady reduction in the minimum maturity period of term d eposits offered by banks; and (v) the tendency on the part of banks to deploy their surplus funds in LAF auctions rather than in the term money market, reflecting risk-averse behaviour. Repos Market Repo is a money market instrument, which enables collateralised short-term borrowing and lending through sale/purchase operations in debt instruments. In this segment, mutual funds and some foreign banks are the major providers of funds, while some foreign banks, private sector banks and primary dealers are the major borrowers. Over the years RBI has taken many measures to reform the Repo market, which was highly regulated both in terms of participants and instruments till the late 1980s. Before April 1988 all government securities and PSU bonds were eligible for repo transactions. However with the alarmingly high growth in repos RBI became cautious and prohibited the participation of non-banks in the repo market. RBI permitted only interbank repos in all government securities between April 1988 and mid-June 1992 in order to avoid any undesirable developments on account of the large scale misuse of repos. The Janakiraman Committee, set up following the securities market irregula rities of 1992, reported that despite of being prohibited virtually all wholesale participants of the money and not only banks widely used the repos. Also many other irregularities were in the repo markets were bought to the forefront, following which the repos were prohibited in all the securities barring the treasury bills. However in wake to revive the repo market and noting the usefulness of repos in development of money market, RBI gradually bought all Central Government dated securities, Treasury Bills and State Government securities under the purview of repo market. Furthermore, with the view to broaden the repo market PSU bonds and private corporate securities have been made eligible for repos in 1997-98. Further RBI introduced the delivery versus payment system during FY96, with an aim to facilitate the repo transactions and increase transparency in the repo market. Nonbank entities which maintained subsidiary general ledger (SGL) account were permitted to participate in the repo market. Since March 2003, the non-bank financial companies, mutual funds, housing finance companies and insurance companies not having SGL account were permitted to transact in the repo market through their gilt accounts maintained with the custodian. With the increase in use of repos as money market instrument the comprehensive uniform accounting guidelines as well as documentation policy were issued by the RBI in March 2003. In addition to this the DvP III mode of settlement in government securities (which involves settlement of securities and funds on a net basis) was operationalised in April 2004. This helped the introduction of rollover of repo transactions in government securities and offered greater flexibility to participants in managing their collaterals. The Liquidity Adjustment Facility (LAF), that was introduced from June 5, 2000, has also helped in development of the repo market. Further the gradual phasing out of nonbanks (August 2005) from the call money market, has provided further impetus to the repo market. This is evident from the sharp increase in the average daily turnover of repo transactions (other than the Reserve Bank) from Rs.11,311 crore during April 2001 to Rs. 42,252 crore in June 2006. Treasury Bills Market T-Bills are issued by the RBI on behalf of the Government of India and thus are actually a class of Government Securities. Presently T-Bills are issued in maturity periods of 91 days, 182 days and 364 days through an auction based system and form one of the most active segments of the Indian money market. However prior to the initiation of reforms, only the 91-day Treasury bills were sold through fixed coupon or tap system. Also ad hoc treasury bills were issued by the government in order to meet the temporary mismatch in revenue and expenditure. Although these were meant for temporary purpose they became attractive source of meeting the central government resource requirement as they were available at an interest rate pegged at 4.6% per annum since 1974. However due to administered nature of interest rate the 91-day treasury bills could not emerge as useful instruments in the money market. But with initiation of the reform measures in the late 1980s T-bills market has emerge d as an important segment of the money market. The reform process in the t-bills market was initiated in November 1986 with the introduction of 182 days treasury bills. The formation of DFHI also helped in emergence of treasury bills market as important segment of the money market. Further impetus was provided to the development of the treasury bills market by the phasing out of the tap treasury bills and introduction of auctioning system in the 91-treasury. Another important reform in the treasury bills market was the abolition of the ad hoc treasury bills in April 1997. Further the introduction of 14-day intermediate treasury bills helped in improving the cash management of the government. Thus, Treasury bills of different tenors were introduced to consolidate the market for imparting liquidity, while yields were made market determined through auctions so that they could be used as benchmark for other short-term market instruments. Treasury Bills market has received special attention of RBI over the years as it is at the heart of the money market development. The amounts assigned for auctions are announced in advance since April 1998. Also the payments dates are synchronized on the following Friday after the auctions inorder to provide fungible stock of varying maturities and to activate the secondary market in Treasury Bills. The primary dealers provide their bid daily and offer discount rates so that the investors are able to acquire treasury bills even in between the auctions. Type of T-bills Introduced Discontinued 91 days Ad-hoc T-Bill Mid 1950s April, 1997 91 days T-Bill on Tap Mid 1950s March, 1997 182 days T-Bill on weekly auction November,1986 April, 1992 14 days T-Bill on weekly auction April, 1997 May, 2001 364 days T-Bill on fortnightly auction April, 1992 91 days T-Bill on weekly auction January,1993 182 days T-Bill on weekly auction Re-introduced in June, 1999 May, 2001 182 days T-Bill on weekly auction Re-introduced in April, 2005 The primary dealers provide their bid daily and offer discount rates so that the investors are able to acquire treasury bills even in between the auctions. Commercial Paper (CP): Commercial paper was introduced in India in January 1990, in accordance with the recommendations of the vaghul committee with an aim to provide additional avenues to the corporate to source short term funds. Commercial Paper (CP) is issued in the form of a promissory note sold directly by the issuers to investors, or else placed by the borrowers through agents such as merchant banks and security houses. Since CP is freely transferable, and highly liquid it provides the banks, financial institutions, insurance companies and others an attractive avenue to park their short term funds. Over the years RBI has gradually relaxed the norms relating to eligibility, maturity period etc. for issuing CPs. Initially, corporates were allowed to issue CP with a maturity between 3 to 6 months from the date of issue. However the minimum tenor of the CP was reduced in phased manner. Currently the minimum tenor of the CP is seven days (effective October 2004). Also the minimum amount to be investe d by a single investor, which was Rs.1 crore at time of introduction of CP, has been gradually brought down to 5 lakhs. This norm was gradually relaxed so as to align the CPs with other money market instruments. These measures helped in the increasing activity in this segment of the money market. Initially the limit of CP issuance was carved out of the maximum permissible bank finance (MPBF) limit and consequently only to its cash credit part. However reducing proportion of cash credit in the MPBF was hindering the development of the CP market and hence issuance of CP was delinked from the cash credit limit in October 1997. Further with a view to enable issuers of the service sector to meet their needs of short-term working capital, CP was transformed into a stand alone product. Initially, the individuals, banks, companies, other corporate bodies registered or incorporated in India and unincorporated bodies were allowed to issue and held the CP. Further issuance of the CP to n on-residents on a non-repatriation basis was allowed however these CPs were non transferable. Also the FIIs were permitted to invest in the CPs since October 2000, but within the limit set by SEBI. Further to improve the efficiency, rationalize standardize the various aspects of processing and reduce the transaction cost many measures such as dematerialization of CPs (effective June 30, 2001) were undertaken by the RBI. It issued draft guidelines on securitisation of standard assets on April 4, 2005, with an aim to further deepen the market. Consequently the issuing and Paying agents were required to report the issuance of the CP on NDS platform commencing from April 16, 2005. Over the years the major issuers of CP have been the leasing and finance companies. Discount rates on CPs have firmed up in line with the increases in policy rates during 2005-06 and 2006-07. It is advantageous for the corporate to raise funds through CPs during times of ample liquidity as the effective discount rates on CP tends to be lower than the banks lending rates. Also it is relatively profitable for banks to park their funds in the CPs during times of high liquidity as the interbank call rates tend to be lower than the CP rates. Thus the activity in the CP market reflects the liquidity condition in the money market. The average outstanding amount of CPs reduced from Rs. 22.80 bn during FY94 to Rs. 4.42 bn in FY96 on account of tight liquidity conditions in the money market. However the outstanding amount of CPs has increased in the recent years. It was Rs. 213.14 bn during FY07. However the secondary market for CPs continues to remain subdued as the investors prefer to hold the instrument till maturity as it gives them a higher risk adjusted return compared to other instruments in the money market. The secondary market of CPs is more profitable for the Mutual funds as they are charged higher stamp duty for issuing a CP as compared to the banks. Certificates of Deposits (CD) CD were introduced in the Indian money market in June 1989, with an view to widen the range of instruments in the money market and provide additional avenue and greater flexibility to the investors to park their short term surplus funds. During the pre reform period the CDs were governed by a number of regulations in terms of maturity, issuance amounts, maturity etc. However many guidelines pertaining to the CDs have been relaxed in the post reform period. The limit on issuance of the CD, which was earlier linked to the average fortnightly outstanding aggregate deposit, was abolished effective October 16, 1993. This was done with a view to enabling it as a market determined instrument. In order to align the CDs with other money market instruments the minimum maturity of the CDs has been reduced gradually to 7 days (April 2005). The minimum size of issuance was reduced from Rs 1 crore in 1989 to Rs. 1 lakh in June 2002. Also to provide flexibility and depth to the secondary marke t activity the restrictions pertaining to the minimum period for transferability were withdrawn over a period of time. With a view to improve transparency and promote secondary market activity the banks were instructed to issue CDs to the financial institutions only in dematerialized form, effective June 30, 2002. Since October 2002 the banks were allowed to issue floating rate CDs as a coupon bearing instrument in order to promote flexible pricing. The reduction in stamp duty on CDs, effective March 1, 2004 and withdrawal of the facility of premature closure of deposits in respect of CDs were other factors that boosted activity in the market, providing greater opportunity for secondary market trading. The activity in the CDs market is also depended on the liquidity conditions in the market as the CPs. Unlike the CPs the issuance of CDs increase in the time of tight liquidity conditions as the banks resort to issuance of CDs, often at premium, to meet their liquidity gap. For instance, the outstanding amount of CDs declined to Rs.949 crore during FY02 as compared to 1,199 crore, partly due to easy liquidity conditions on account of large capital inflows. However the average outstanding amount of CDs increased gradually during the subsequent periods. The average outstanding amount of CDs had increased to Rs.64,814 crore during FY07 as banks resorted to issuance of CDs in order to support the robust credit demand. The interest rates on CDs which had softened in the recent years in line with other money market instruments experienced some hardening during FY07. However banks offer higher interest rates on CDs as compared to other instruments and hence it is profitable for the subscriber to hold the CDs till maturity. This infact is one of the reasons for subdued secondary market for the CDs. Collateralised Borrowing and lending obligation: The CCIL operationalised CBLO as a money market instrument on Jan 20, 2003 with an aim to provide an alternative avenue to the market participants, especially those who were phased out of the call money market, to manage their short term liquidity. This innovative product developed by the CCIL facilitates anonymous order matching system for efficient price discovery. High transparency and real time basis of deals in the CBLO have assisted in enhancing efficiency of the money market. With the conversion of the call money market in a pure interbank market since August 2005 and setting of prudential limits on lending and borrowing by banks and PDs in the call money market, the activity has shifted to CBLO segment as can be seen in the below chart. The average daily turnover in the CBLO segment has registered an increase from Rs.515 crore in FY04 to Rs.32,390 crore during FY07. However the increase in turnover can be partly attributed to the increase in number of participants from 3 0 in July 2003 to 153 in March 2007. It is important to note here that the composition of market participants has also changed over the years. The mutual funds and insurance companies have emerged as the major lenders while the nationalized banks, PDs and non-financial companies as major borrowers during FY07. As borrowings in the CBLO segment are fully collateralised, the rates in this segment are expected to be comparable with the repo rates. The movements in the daily average rates in the overnight call, the repo and the CBLO markets for the period from January 2003 to March 2007 show that CBLO rates moved between the call and the repo rates up to November 2003 due to a limited number of participants. From November 2003, the CBLO rates have aligned with the repo rates on account of increase in the number of participants. Money Market Mutual Funds (MMMFs) With an aim of bringing the money market within the reach of individual investors the MMMF were introduced in India in April 1991. However a detailed scheme of MMMFs was declared by the RBI in April 1992, thereby allowing the schedule commercial banks and public financial institutions to set up MMMFs, subject to some terms and conditions. However to provide flexibility, liquidity and depth to the market these restrictions were relaxed over a period of time. For example the minimum lock in period for the units of MMMFs was brought down from 30 days to 15 days in May 1998. MMMFs were permitted to offer cheque writing facility in a tie-up with banks in 1999-2000 in order to provide added liquidity to unit holders. MMMFs, which were under the purview of RBI, were bought under SEBIs regulations Since March 7, 2000. Also it is important to note that now banks are permitted to set up MMMFs only in form of trust as a separate entity. Also the MMMFs were permitted to invest in rated corp orate bonds and debentures with a residual maturity of one year.
Saturday, May 16, 2020
People who suddenly find themselves sentenced to prison usually face a great deal of fear and uncertainty. These feelings stem from the differences that an inmate experiences versus how a Ã¢â¬Å"civilianÃ¢â¬ experiences life on the outside of prison. Accepted societal norms put aside for the codes and norms of prison inmates. Examples of the different experiences can be found when the convicted person first enters the prison. There are a series of steps they take through the processing center and they get their first real sense of fear. Inmates may yell at them when they enter a certain hall, the staff are strict and not trying to make their stay Ã¢â¬Å"comfortableÃ¢â¬ . Doors locked behind themÃ¢â¬âthere is no leaving to back to the life they once knew. In order to assimilate into the prison system, an inmate must learn how to act with other inmates and staff. They must also learn that they will be deprived of certain things they took for granted when they were in the civilian population,while learning that some things they import with them can help their prison stay be tolerable at least. Once a person becomes a residential inmate of a prison, their freedoms are lost; at least during their sentence. A person loses a job, family time, days off for vacation, nights out with friends are just a few examples of what a person losses. Another example would be a deprivation of family completely; maybe the prisoner was the only source of income for a family and the family lost their home,Show MoreRelatedIs Prison A Whole New Society? Essay1534 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescan result in prison time. Prison is not somewhere that a lot of people want to be, but what is interesting about prison is that it is like entering a whole new society. It even has its own culture and subculture. Culture is human-created strategies for adjusting to their surroundings and the creatures around them. Subculture refers to a group that shares some parts of the culture but have their own distinctive values, norms, beliefs, symbols, language, and material culture. Prison is a total institutionRead MoreH ow Prison Life Really Works Essay1305 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHow prison life really works Prison life is much harsher than jail. In prison you stay inside until you are done with your sentence or until you die; jail is nothing compared to prison. Each prisoner is locked out from the outside world. Each inmate is in there for different crimes they have committed outside and inside the prison. It is very interesting to see how the inmates survive in prison and how they adapt to their new lives because in prison they are blocked from the outside world. TheRead MoreA Look at Crime from a Sociological Perspective1020 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCrime A Look into Crime from a Sociological Perspective Introduction Crime is considered to be some breech or violation of behaviors which stand in opposition of rules or norms instituted by some governing body. Some actions are considered to be crimes throughout most societies in history; murder or physical abuse can serve as an example as an example. However, the majorities of things that are considered crimes are more of a subjective nature and vary widely in different societies. In many societiesRead MoreEssay on Historical Prison Eras633 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesyears the way prisons are run has changed. Changes include social roles, informal behavior norms, and social solidarity. Prison history has three major eras the Big House, the correctional institution, and the contemporary prison. In The Big House era criminals were known as Ã¢â¬Å"convictsÃ¢â¬ and the guards where known as Ã¢â¬Å"hacksÃ¢â¬ and they were both supposed to keep distance from each other. To make their time easier in the Big House, convicts developed their own social roles, informal codes of behaviorsRead MoreJails and Prisons1109 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ Jail and Prison One of the key cornerstones of the criminal justice system is the correctional system, specifically the correctional facilities. Prisons and jails are examples of correctional facilities that help keep the criminal justice system running smoothly and efficiently. Without these facilities, there would be no place for criminals to serve their sentences, and no one would really be safe. Although prison and jail seem to be interchangeable words, they actually mean two differentRead MoreGender Norms And Practices Within Private Organizations793 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The authors suggest that the study of gender norms and practices in private organizations should be used for future research on the role of gender in public management. Gender norms are defined rules that govern behaviors based on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s sex. The article states that gender norms are established through repeated interpersonal interactions, which lead to informal rules and expectations developed over the years. It is also mentioned that gender norms are established in the work environment by theRead MoreDescribe How Groups Can Influence People in Positive and Negative Ways.970 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesof it. The norms of the group are expected to be adhered to by members, and this can lead to members being expected to conform, non conformity can often lead to role conflict and group pressure to follow the rules, and ultimalty if the overall effect is negative or positive. The Zimbardo experiment ,Philip Zimbardo (1971) Starting with psychology, Milton Keynes, Open University,An example of a negative influence on people. Zimbardo and his colleagues set up an experiment in a prison environmentRead MoreWhat Did The Novel Be Considered As More Than A Prison Novel?1439 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTo what extent could the novel be considered as more than a prison novel (and how does SolzhenitsynÃ¢â¬â¢s message change according to that)? REARANGE PARAGRAPHS MAKE A BIBLIOGRAPHY ADD HIGHLIGHTED PARTS. Upon a cursory analysis of Alexandr SolzhenitsynÃ¢â¬â¢s One day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich is often thought of as solely a prison novel that depicted the injustices that occurred frequently in the gulags of Russia under StalinÃ¢â¬â¢s rule. However, if you dare to delve into the deeper crevices of the bookRead MoreJuvenile Delinquency : Should Severity Of Punishment For Young Offenders Be The Same As Adults?1200 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesissue of the youth. This type of youth offences is often known as the Ã¢â¬Å"juvenile delinquencyÃ¢â¬ , Bartol (as cited in Winterdyk, 2000, p. 12) defines that Ã¢â¬Å"juvenile delinquency is an imprecise, nebulous legal and social label for a wide variety of law- and norm-violating behaviourÃ¢â¬ . The youth who involves are called Ã¢â¬Å"young offendersÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"adolescent offendersÃ¢â¬ , or Ã¢â¬Å"juvenile offendersÃ¢â¬ . The youth which include children and teenagers have been described as the future of the society because they are the greatestRead MoreAndy Is The Main Character In The Film Who Has No Previous1641 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessentenced to two consecutive life sentences for murdering his wife and her lover. He maintains he is innocent of the murders, which we find out later to be true. When he arrives in prison, he does not bring any prison experience with him- he knows nothing about the inmate codes and norms, is alone, and completely new to the prison environment. The first two years of his sentence he suffered greatly from abuse and rape by other more aggressive prisoners. He resisted prisonization and tried to stay isolated
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
DeÃ¢â¬â¢Angelo Collington Dr. Bunger WC 370 SSA 1/24/17 Marketing Nigeria In April 2014 statistical rebasing exercise, Nigeria has emerged as Africa s largest economy, with 2015 GDP estimated at $1.1 trillion. Oil has been a dominant source of income and government revenues since the 1970s. Following the 2008-9 global financial crises, the banking sector was effectively recapitalized and regulation enhanced. NigeriaÃ¢â¬â¢s economic growth over the last five years has been driven by growth in agriculture, telecommunications, and services. In this paper I will be trying to marketing some of things in Nigeria that might have people interested in getting their hands on or even coming to Nigeria to see. For instance I will give you why some peopleÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Although production figures dropped in the eighties due to economic slump, 2004 saw a total rejuvenation of oil production to a record level of 2.5 million barrels per day. Current development strategies are aimed at increasing production to 4million barrels per day by the year 2010. The gross domestic profit (GDP) is going up every year 2013 was 1 trillion, in 2014 it was 1.063 trillion, and in 2015 it was 1.092.Ã¢â¬ So every year it is going up and up so for anyone you can see that you would be able to make money in the oil business in Nigeria if you or anyone else for that matter could get your hands in on some of that deal you could be making a lot of money. In my option this is not a high risk because the oil figures are not going down at all so the money you would put in you would defiantly get back in the long run. There are many attractions in Nigeria but IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to give you about two or three of them. The number one attraction in Nigeria is the Nike Art Center. The Nike Art Center is an art gallery in Lagos owned by Nike Davies-Okundaye. The gallery is arguably the largest of its kind in West Africa. Housed in a five-storyÃ¢â¬â¢s tall building, it boasts a collection of about 8,000 diverse artworks from various Nigerian art ists. A little more about the center Nike is the Managing Director/CEO of Nike Center for Art and Culture, Osogbo where trainings are offered free of charge to all Nigerians in various forms
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
My Idea of a Good Life Essay A good life is different for everybody. I think that the most important thing in life is happiness. You can have no money, have no friends or live in a place you dont like and dont feel comfortable at. But you can still be happy. Why? Because you may have a family to come home to, or maybe something else in your life that makes you happy. That can be happiness for some people. Money. To earn money you need a job, of course. And for almost every well paid job you need to have an education. I know a guy that skipped high school, he didnt study at all except elementary school. But today he is rich. He started a successful company and now he is a millionaire. Me and a lot of other young people feel the pressure to study real hard because we have been told that without school, we have no future. At least not a future as a loyer, a brain surgeon or a manager at a large million companie. But its not about the money that those works give you. If you love to work with kids at a kindergarden, if you love to teach, if you want to create your own company, be a scientist, psychologist or sit at the counter in a store. Then do it! Its about doing something you love. A lot of money can be happiness for some people, its understandable. You can do almost anything you want and buy everything in a store without feeling quilty. But can money buy happiness, love, friendship and a good life? No. Even if I actually think that money can be a shortcut to happiness, but that happiness just last for the moment, not a lifetime. Another thing that is so important in having a good life is the people you surround yourself with. You cant choose your family because you are born into it. But something you can do is that you can choose your friends. It has taken me years to realise who are my real friends and not. But one day I realized it and I felt so stupid, what took me so long? Its hard to break off contact with friends, at least for me. If they offend you, goes behind your back and takes your energy instead of giving you energy they arent friends. Its such a relief to get rid of people who bring you down and it makes your life a hundred times easier. Trust me, I know. In the age of fifteen you feel like you are an adult, that you can do everything yourself without your parents. In my mind Im eighteen and sometimes even older. In my parents mind Im thirteen or even younger. It feels like I cant have the life I want until Im older because I cant do anything I want right now. Im just too young. In the future I would love to have a great job, live in a big apartment in a big city and have a husband and kids to come home to. That would be a good life for me. Im not saying my life isnt good as it is. Because my life is good and I have nothing to complain about. I have good chances in school, I live in a big apartment, I have made friends for life and a great family that I would do anything for. My little sister, my role models and older sisters and of course my amazing big brother. My parents studied a lot, just so they could have good jobs and give me and my siblings a good life. They fought and they succeeded. My dad works so much and of course I miss him when hes not home. But atleast I have a dad, some people dont and a good life for me could never be a life without my dad. He does it for me and our family, so he could give us all we need. I couldnt be more grateful and if someone would ask me if my life was good, I would say yes every second of the day. For me, a good life is happiness.
Friday, April 17, 2020
Most aspects of modern life are dominated by the input of new media. Most people use new media on a daily basis and it is common to see individuals relying on gadgets that make new media more accessible such as tablets, smart phones, and personal computers.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on New MediaÃ¢â¬â¢s Positive and Negative Effects specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, it does not come a shock to many people that new media has a profound effect on modern life. The attention that is given to new media today has almost become an obsession. Everywhere one looks, he/she is bound to notice an aspect of new media whether it is internet adverts, social media, and broadcast services, among other aspects. New media today is synonymous with household names such as Facebook, twitter, and Google. The infiltration of new media into the society has elicited a debate concerning the effects this tool has on the societ y. There are those who feel that this tool is doing more harm than good to the society. On the other hand, there are those who feel that new media is a revolutionary tool that will improve the modern society. The new media debate has attracted various stakeholders including scholars and experts. Steven Pinker is one of those experts who have weighed in on the new media debate. PinkerÃ¢â¬â¢s argument is that the fear that is brought about by the popularity of new media is just misplaced panic. However, his opponents blame new media for the several things including the deteriorating moral fiber and brainpower. This paper agrees with PinkerÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments about new media in relation to the views of other experts in this field. The popularity of new media has often been referred to as a fad. However, new media is not the only fad in the history of human existence. Throughout history, several Ã¢â¬ËfadsÃ¢â¬â¢ that are similar to new media have arisen. Nevertheless, some of the t ools that have been blamed for degrading the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s moral fiber usually have one thing in common, popularity. Whenever a certain trend becomes popular, marketing practices tend to favor some opposition towards this trend. Some of the trends that have experienced similar negative attention include the rock and roll trend of the 1970s, the comic book trend, the hip hop music trend, and the more recent video game trend. At the height of their popularity, most of these trends were disputed by Ã¢â¬ËexpertsÃ¢â¬â¢ on several fields including psychologists. However, over time it has become clear that most of these expert-based warnings were baseless. In his essay Ã¢â¬Å"Mind over Mass MediaÃ¢â¬ Steven Pinker points out that Rock music did not lower the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s I.Q and video games did not contribute to an increase in crime (Pinker 34). It can be argued that the society panics whenever a product or a trend becomes too popular. This panic can be interpreted to mean th at people always want to be in control of their lives.Advertising Looking for essay on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, new media elicits the fear that individuals in the society will lose control over their lives because new media takes over the activities they used to perform for themselves. Most of those who are suspicious about the popularity of new media are only fighting over personal control. In his essay Ã¢â¬Å"Does the Internet make you DumberÃ¢â¬ , Nicholas Carr writes that the internet gives people access to too much information and tends to be confusing and distracting (Carr 22). The demand for information has been there for several centuries now and people have worked hard to meet it. However, just because what seemed impossible is now possible does not necessitate panic. Mankind is currently looking for solutions to other problems and when these problems are solved it is possibl e that they will be opposed by critics. According to those who are skeptical about new media, the domination of new media is its main undoing. The reason for the opponentsÃ¢â¬â¢ arguments is that new media has a negative effect on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s attention because it enhances attention disorders due to its short lifespan. The main effect of new media on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s attention is the changing content. For instance, there is a trending topic on Twitter every day. Experts dispute this argument by indicating that there are no recorded side effects to consuming too much information. Those who criticize new media argue against it by claiming that the process of receiving too much information has negative effects on the human brain. This argument also implies that the composition of the brain can be changed by the information that the brain receives. The counter-argument of this opinion is that the neurological composition of the brain cannot be changed. One expert equates this argume nt to the saying that Ã¢â¬Å"you are what you eatÃ¢â¬ (Pinker 34). Consuming information does not constitute any major changes to the functions of the brain. The brain can either be improved or enhanced by information but it cannot be changed. For example, it is not possible for anybody to acquire singing skills just by listening or watching other musicians. However, someone who is already a musician can improve his/her trade by watching other musicians. When the brain is required to take in too much information, it often has coping mechanisms that help in the cataloguing of information. Therefore, it is not possible to condense the brain by consuming condensed information. The over reliance of new media has been shown to have various effects on its users. However, there is no common agreement as to the positivity or negativity of these effects. While some argue that the effects of new media are negative others only point to the positive effects of new media. The two leading voic es on effects of new media are Nicholas Carr and Steven Pinker.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on New MediaÃ¢â¬â¢s Positive and Negative Effects specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Steven Pinker argues that new media only highlights the already existing personal deficiencies. For example, people with attention deficits are more likely to be negatively affected by the existence of various new media platforms. Pinker however disputes the argument that the attention span of everyone who uses new media can be compromised by continued use (Manovich 100). When the negative effects of new media are recorded on a few individuals, they should not be used to demonize new media. PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to organize thoughts and functions cannot be affected by the amounts of information that is available to them. However, it is up to any individual to sort out his/her consumed information. There is still no solid criticism on t he effectiveness of new media. Although new media critics use scientific studies and facts to support their claims, most of these facts have already been successfully challenged by other experts. Eventually, the criticism on new media will decline as the trend becomes more acceptable. Works Cited Carr, Nicholas. Ã¢â¬Å"Does the internet make you dumber.Ã¢â¬ Ã Wall Street JournalÃ 5.10 (2010): 22-23. Print. Manovich, Lev.Ã The Language of New Media, California, CA: The MIT press, 2001. Print. Pinker, Steven. Ã¢â¬Å"Mind over mass media.Ã¢â¬ Ã New York Times 10 jun. 2010: 34. Print. This essay on New MediaÃ¢â¬â¢s Positive and Negative Effects was written and submitted by user Zariyah Ward to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. 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Friday, March 13, 2020
Mind My Karaoke Ã¢â¬â Music Business Plan Essays Mind My Karaoke Ã¢â¬â Music Business Plan Paper Mind My Karaoke Ã¢â¬â Music Business Plan Paper Executive sum-up Karaoke is a Free Web based Application Software for personal computer. Smart phones and tablets. it is Initially Designer for the Indian Music Industry where people are Interested in societal Networking and interacting with each other through assorted Mediums. Karaoke will look near to Social networking. with a Fresh and New construct of people doing their ain karaoke version of their favourite latest vocals from All Different languages all over India and portion it With their friends and Well wishers. utilizing it as an Recreational medium. With Increasing and Incredible Piracy rate in India Karaoke will assist The record Companies. Artists and the Consumers every bit good. A Web based Application Software. where sharing Karaoke vocals and Interacting with friends is new and easy to accommodate and interesting every bit good. The Karaoke offers up to day of the month Original karaoke paths with good quality and voice modulating options for the recreational vocalist who use it as a diversion and Fun. The karaoke itself acts as an Social Networking Medium where it meets Facebook. Twitter and Sound Cloud which are one of the Top rated Social mediums in this coevals to do it more Interesting. Business Idea The Increasing Piracy rate in India. particularly in the Music Industry where 95 % of the Music Downloaded in India is claimed to be Illegal ( RIAA study Ã¢â¬â 2010 ) . India when Compared to the Other Countries unhappily remains in the top five. with a High buccaneering rate in the Film Industry. The Film Industry suffered loss of ? 450 476 000 ( INR 4000 00 00 000 ) due to Video and Audio buccaneering. There is drastic increasing degree of music buccaneering through Online and Offline twelvemonth by twelvemonth. where there is no mark of diminishing buccaneering rate. The Indian Film Industry is a turning Industry where the Numberss is on addition. India is the Largest manufacturer of movies harmonizing to the BBC study 2009. In 2009 India Produced 2961 movies on celluloid includes 1288 characteristic Films. The are more than 10 subdivisions in the Indian Film Industry which contains more than 10 linguistic communications of Films. i. e. Hindi. Tamil. Kannada. Malayalam. Telugu. Assamese. Bengali. Gujarati. Konkani. Marathi. Punjabi. Sindhi and many more. where each province has an alone Language of their ain. Minimum of 100 Movies each from the linguistic communications of Tamil. Telugu. Hindi. Malayalam and Kannada release in Cinema theaters every twelvemonth. 95 % of the Movies has Songs which is a typical feature of the Indian Film Industry. Each Movie releases a Music Album from the Movie itself incorporating a Minimum of 4 Paths which helps the growing of this merchandise. The Main advantage of KARAOKE is the increasing figure of people who use societal Networking and Applications for Recreations. Fun and remaining in Touch with Friends. India ranks Third in the World for Social Networking users. In India now it has become a Manner that people Express their Emotions in Public through Social Networking Thus karaoke would be an Entertaining application for them. The karaoke besides offers the Original versions of the Songs for Download at cheaper Monetary value where the Customer can purchase it after Listening to the prevue of the Songs. As the Application Software is designed for Mul ti platform it can be used in Smartphones and Tablets every bit good This makes the Application Portable and Fun to utilize it Wherever we are. The KARAOKE has an Unique Feature of Auto Voice tuning Option. where it helps to cut off Background and Ambience noises doing it easy for the Users and it besides Helps the Amateur Singers to Tune their Voice for Better Quality and Fun. It provides assorted Features likes gives a opportunity to Listen to the Original path for a Limited figure of times before Buying are entering the Karaoke Version. in each purchase of a Karaoke Track it offers a Free online Lyrics Script for that Song. where people can even alter the wordss as good. non it any manner of offering the Composer. Artist or the Record Labels. The KARAOKE has a new Approach towards the Music Industry where it Helps to Reduce Music Piracy in India. Where people can Buy the vocals Merely which they like at cheaper monetary value alternatively of Buying the Whole Album. KARAOKE soles the Purpose of Interest of the Consumers from All over India who likes Songs and likes to Sing vocals. This merchandise will Catch the Kids and Youngsters every bit good. Peoples in In India are connected to Internet and Social networking most of the Time. About 620 330 040 Facebook Users prevail in India Ranking the Third Highest Facebook Users state in the World. So Publishing and Sharing the Product through Facebook would assist and which would besides Prefer the Facebook. The Karaoke has a Separate Webpage which acts like an Social networking Website where people can wish and notice on others Karaoke vocals. give an Unique name for their Karaoke vocal and portion them on Facebook. chirrup and Sound cloud. Though KARAOKE is Unique in its ain Kind with different Approach towards Karaoke. There are Six Prevailing Competitors for KARAOKE Rivals 1. Meraghana. com 2. Redkaraoke. com 3. Taranaa. com 4. Desikaraokedownload. com 5. Karaokehindi. com 6. Latestbollywoodkaraoke. com SWOT analysis Strength Ã¢â¬â new invention towards karaoke Ã¢â¬â works both as societal networking and helps music industry from Piracy every bit good Ã¢â¬â low cost Ã¢â¬â latest vocals Ã¢â¬â sharing with friends Ã¢â¬â can be operated through Mobile Phone and Tablets every bit Well. |Weaknesses Ã¢â¬â original karaoke versions released can be pirated Ã¢â¬â vocals Piquing the Composer and Record labels can be made Ã¢â¬â thought can non be copyrighted | Opportunities Ã¢â¬â low cost options for individual vocals alternatively of purchasing the whole album Ã¢â¬â listen to the vocals for limited figure of times before the Download. |Threats Ã¢â¬â bing and new competition can originate with similar merchandises Ã¢â¬â cost of Web hosting and server infinite in Rise | 3. Background The Team Consists of Members with Knowledge of Music Industry in India. Music Engineers. Application and Server Maintainers. Software Developers. Me therefore holding rather a Good cognition about the Indian Music Industry and prosecuting Audio Production Course geting Knowledge in Both Artistic and Technical facets and holding cognition about the Karaoke Music Interests in India will work out the Purpose. Recognizing the Piracy menace and Detailed research how buccaneering affects the Indian Music Industry helps to convey up this Business Plan. For Additional aid and proficient Assistance People will be recruited in Future of the Business if Needed. The Team shall be Expanded in Future of the Merchandise when it goes Global when it is introduced in Other Countries. shall incur Help from the Countries Respectively for Further Assistance. 4. Ownership The Ownership of this Merchandise this Project would Belong to the Creator of this Product and the Financier of this Undertaking in 15 % and 85 % severally in the Net income Margin. where the Creator would be Developing the Merchandise with Different Ideas and new Inventions doing it Interesting for the Consumers. where the Record labels would hold Partnership with the Composers and Artists for Making the Karaoke Version. which is Simple with the Same Original Track without the Vocal musics and the Record Label will hold Royalty and Copyright Agreement with the Composer and Artists of the Songs. 5. Company Structure The Company Structure includes the Team and the Space for Suiting the Server and Technical Support. Though This will be an Free Application Software the Investors Play a Critical function and they Handle the Artists and Composers sing the Royalties for each vocal that is sold through the KARAOKE. 6. Team Once the Merchandise is Developed by the Developers for introduced in the Market. it needs Technicians for Trouble shot and farther proficient aid during the First 3 Months of the Product Launch where the Developers will be responsible for Screening it out harmonizing to the Agreement they Have with the Company. Software will be Further Developed and maintained depending upon the Increase in figure of Consumers. 5. THE Merchandise The Product KARAOKE is a web based Application Software for Pc. Mobile phones and Tablets. KARAOKE is an Application Software which acts like an Social Networking web where Consumers From India can Sing and do their Favorite Karaoke Songs from All Different Languages in India. The Cardinal Feature of this Product is Consumers have entree to utilize Up to day of the month Latest Karaoke vocals from more than 10 Different Languages in India. The Product is Economic when compared to the other Karaoke Web downloads in India. where Peoples can listen and take their Karaoke vocals before purchasing it. and they can Buy individual original versions of the Song they like instead purchasing the whole Album. KARAOKE has assorted Facilities where people can sing and pull strings their voice to do it better or Hilarious harmonizing to their wish. with Assorted Vocal Auto Tune Option. When They buy a Song from KARAOKE. they can sing the Original Lyrics where they would be given a free online Free Lyrics book for that vocal or they can do their Own Lyrics within the Footings and conditions. Where any Vulgarity or in offense to jurisprudence shall be instantly removed from the Web. Once they are Done with Recording the Song. they can Upload it merely one time through the Application. But they can maintain their Downloaded Karaoke version With them. Consumers will hold all entree to Training and Trials on the web page. When they Uploaded a Song. they can Upload it with different entering once more and so they have to purchase the Track once more for Uploading and they canÃ¢â¬â¢t Claim Copyright for their Lyrics or the Tracks. Any Unlawful Act by the Consumers will be taken to Account where they can go on utilizing the Product. When Peoples report Spams or any other Disrespectful to one another. the vocal shall be removed with farther Notice. KARAOKE allows the consumers to wish and notice on Others vocals and can Rate on others Songs. consumers can Upload their Songs on Facebook. Twitter. Sound cloud and on the Same KARAOKE web page every bit good. As KARAOKE web page Acts of the Apostless as a Social Networking web. consumers can call their Own vocals with the name they like and give a Description or Story For that vocals. Where they can show the memories of the vocals and Emotions through words. In The Initial Stage of the Karaoke From the Launch of the merchandise till it gets Familiar with the people. they get a Beneficial Package when they Invite people to the Product. they get free Songs and can do their free vocal and Share it. which helps the Product as a Promotion. KARAOKE is speedy to Access even on Mobile phones and Tablets where they all need is Internet and the Product. KARAOKE will be Introduced as Free Subscription Application Software. Where People acquire a Free Songs from latest and Up to day of the month vocals on the Web. which helps them to cognize about the Product and acquire Familiar with and they are allowed to Share the vocal. They following Benefit they Get is. As they Invite Peoples to the KARAOKE they get a Free Songs After Inviting 20 people as they Join they KARAOKE which makes it More Interesting for them and Which could assist them more to cognize about the merchandise. Where these Beneficial Schemes helps the ProductÃ¢â¬â¢s Promotion and Marketing and makes it Familiar to the Younger coevals who are Active on Social Networking. KARAOKE will Act as a Fun and Recreational Element. KARAOKE will besides sell Original Versions of Up to Date vocals at Cheaper monetary value. which helps The Indian Music Industry to Fight Against Piracy. There are More than Hundred Websites which Offers illegal Download. which the Government wants to close down but the Numberss are still on addition and this Product would assist Fighting Against Piracy. Subsequently After doing the Merchandise Familiar the Product can be Redesigned to establish in different Countries. KARAOKE after a Steady success. will hold a Dealership will Mobile Networking Companies. because in India Many people use a installation called company Tune where people naming one another would listen to their Favorite vocal alternatively of the normal ring. where KARAOKE would offer that they can utilize their ain karaoke vocal which they made as their Caller Tune. this would do the Consumers more Interesting where they ever in a hunt of Something New. 6. Selling Plan Having cognition of Indian Music Industry and being cognizant of the High Piracy rate in India and the Attitude of the Indian Consumers who are Keen on seeking something which is new to the market and which helps to Interact with one another. friends and Family. This Would assist them as an Diversion and to remain in touch with each other in an Alone manner like of all time earlier. So we understand that people need something new which would assist them Forget Illegal Download and do them purchase Original paths and karaoke versions and do this as an amusement more interesting which already prevails but non rather popular. Here KotlerÃ¢â¬â¢s 4Ps of Marketing Help to Address a selling Strategy ( laid-back 2009 ) . Merchandise The Consumers want to Try something new when Merchandises like this Launches in the Market. They are connected to Social Networking most of the clip to remain in touch with One another. As Peoples in India are Music Lovers and Movie Lovers every bit good they would wish to seek this merchandise every bit good. KARAOKE is a merriment Filled Entertainment and Recreational solution for the People who Love music and love to do Music where they can buy Original paths. This Merchandise will hold a strong connexion with the Amateur vocalists chiefly. as they want to sing vocals and do it sound good merely where they are. and to portion it with friends. this will assist them to achieve what they need. KARAOKE is a simple and effectual Application in which they can do their vocal wherever they are. all they need is a personal computer or Mobile phone or tablet with internet connexion. Karaoke provides more Interesting options which would do it User friendly. Topographic point As KARAOKE is a Free Version Application Software. they can Directly Download it from the Web page or through Online Application stares of their Mobile phones and Tablets. After Downloading the Application. when they need to Buy Karaoke Songs and Original Songs. they can Buy it with their Recognition Card games and Debit Cards. which the Webpage would give proper Guidance. Another Important point of sale will be through Advertisement links on Facebook. chirrup and Sound Cloud. where people can fall in and buy the vocals on spell. No direct hard currency dealing would take topographic point. everything would travel through secured on-line debit and Credit card payment. Monetary value The Product is Very Cheap and Economic when compared to its Competitor although this is a new Innovation and unique of its Kind. The Application Software would be Absolutely Free with free Ascents as good. When KARAOKE is compared to it market rivals it is economic. where the viing web sites offer monthly and Annual bundle of ?15 and more. which are higher than the KARAOKE. where merely few Web sites offer individual vocal download which is Much more expensive than our Merchandise. To do it comfy for the Consumers KARAOKE offers individual vocals downloads at cheaper monetary value where if people are non likely interested any longer they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to lose their money. KARAOKE offers Original Songs and Karaoke Version at the same Cost where each of them would be charged ?0. 11 ( INR = 10 ) which is the most inexpensive and sensible cost for a Path in the Indian Market. Where as iTunes sells each vocal at a cost of ?0. 14 ( INR = 12 ) . iTunes when compared to KARAOKE. it is moderately cheaper. As the this would be an attractive and inexpensive monetary value for the Consumers of the Indian Market. As the Competing Websites Offers Annual Packages. most of the Websites doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t Offer Latest vocals. which is more likely to be a draw back for their ain luck. where they are more like Coercing to Consumers to buy the Monthly or Annual Package. where as KARAOKE doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t gives the Consumers the Whole freedom where they can take what they would wish to Buy and Use. Promotion The Product will be Promoted in a Number of ways to Target the Younger coevals. These people Chiefly Include from the Age group of 16 Ã¢â¬â 35. where the Other Age Group Promotion would besides take topographic point. As the First Step of Promotion. The Application Software will be given as a Free Download where Peoples can research and understand about the Product. The Following measure would be that Each and Everyone who had joined the KARAOKE would be given a Free Karaoke Song of their ain pick which is Present on the Web. where people will now be allowed to see the Product and portion it with their Friends and acquire a good cognition about the Product. The following measure of publicity would be with Regional Celebrities from Different linguistic communications. will be making a karaoke version of a celebrated vocal and will be out on the Web and societal networking sites and their fan Pages. where it will be shared for publicity. this will assist the Product acquire popular. The Following Step would be. when people invite more than 20 people and as the invited people articulation. the Invite would acquire a free Song once more. This will increase the figure of users of the merchandise and makes it Quite popular among the Childs. Now KARAOKE would hold Enough users and they would get down wishing the merchandise as they Would get down Buying the vocals. Facebook. chirrup and Sound Cloud would play an Important Role in Promoting the Product as people make their Karaoke Song and portion it with their Friends Online. Ads on Social networking sites would take topographic point. As KARAOKE has new merriment filled Features like Auto Voice melody. Amusing effects. it is rather easy to acquire familiar and effectual with childs and Childs. Subsequently on After acquiring steady market and Consumers. KARAOKE will hold coaction withe Mobile Network Companies to utilize their ain vocals of the Consumers as their Caller Tunes. where we would acquire paid by the Mobile Network companies and they would be bear downing from the Consumers. As Each and Every hebdomad in India more than 2 Music Albums are released so people will be more Curious about doing new karaoke vocals and this will add up to their Entertainment. 7. Gross saless AND DISTRIBUTION Primary gross revenues would be through the Official Web page and Application shops of the Mobile Phones and Tablets. where Ads about new vocals and trades would be Published and shared through Social networking and the Followings in them. Ads about the release of new Albums and updates about Upcoming Songs would be done through the Official Webpage and Social networking. As Karaoke Acts as an Social Networking site it solves the Purpose. This would take quality clip to Get popular and effectual in the Market as this Involves people from Different provinces and Different Languages from India. As the Celebrity Advertisements would assist in Promoting the merchandise will assist the gross revenues of the merchandise in a period of Time. Distribution will be Done in the Web page and in Social Networking sites every bit good through Ads and information. where the Followers would acquire Up to day of the month informationÃ¢â¬â¢s. Distribution will partially be done by the consumers every bit good as they do their vocal and portion it with others. which would be good for both the Consumers and the manufacturers. After a figure of people had acquired and history with KARAOKE. the following measure for the company would be upgrading the merchandise to do it functional for a big figure of people and doing it user-friendly after having feedback from the Consumers. 8. Rivals KARAOKE faces Competition in two Different ways. thought KARAOKE is a whole new different merchandise from their rivals. One manner of Competition would be through Existing Websites which are available for Karaoke vocals Downloads. The other manner of Competition would be through the Duplication of the Product and buccaneering of the Paths released through KARAOKE. There are Six chief viing web sites. which shall be stated below and compared with KARAOKE. 1. meraghana. com: which offers a Subscription Plan for $ 4. 95 ( INR = 270. 67. ? = 3. 05 ) a Month and $ 49. 95 ( INR = 2731. 27. ? = 30. 76 ) a twelvemonth for limitless use. The cost of this Product is really High for the Consumers as meraghana. com has really fer consumers. which doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t offer any new Songs and dressed ores on a Single linguistic communication from India and it does non offer any free add-ons like the Lyrics book and Movie InformationÃ¢â¬â¢s. 2. Redkaraoke. com Which Offers a Subscription program for $ 2. 99 ( INR = 163. 49. ? = 1. 84 ) a Day. $ 6. 99 ( INR = 382. 21. ? = 4. 30 ) a Month and $ 39. 99 ( INR = 2186. 65. ? = 24. 63 ) a Year. where there rates are excessively high even for a individual twenty-four hours subscription and they do non offer any new vocals or sharing installations and there is no attention deficit disorder on to the Product as much. 3. Taranaa. com Which Offers a Annual Subscription for $ 20 ( INR = 1093. 60. ? = 12. 32 ) a twelvemonth. They do non offer any monthly Subscription or individual vocal Download options was KARAOKE does and they do non Offer any new vocals which disappoints the Consumers. and they do non offer different linguistic communications. 4. Desikaraokedownload. com it is a free karaoke vocals downloading Website. though it is illegal Downloads its Quite Popular where people can download the karaoke vocals and record it individually on their ain devices. where as the web site does non bring forth any installations for entering and Sharing the paths. As it is an illegal download there is no proper quality of the paths. 5. Karaokehindi. com Where Each Track Cost $ 5 ( INR = 273. 40. ? = 3. 08 ) which makes it excessively expensive for the consumers when compared to the other viing web sites. and they do non offer any monthly or annual subscriptions as the other web sites do. They offer merely old vocals and non the Latest paths which could catch the childs attending. 6. Latestbollywoodkaraoke. com This Website Offers up to day of the month karaoke paths. including the Latest releases for Free. but it is illegal Download where the vocals are non Copyrighted at all. The Tracks which they offer are manipulated hapless Quality paths. Though they provide latest vocals the do non supply any recording installations or sharing installations. SWOT analysis for KARAOKE when compared to its Rivals Strengths Ã¢â¬â Can be used in Mobile phones and Tablets excessively. which makes it Portable. Ã¢â¬â Easy to Use and an Interesting piece of Entertainment. Ã¢â¬â Sharing Facilities on Social Networking web sites. Ã¢â¬â new invention towards Karaoke because it is alone in its Own sort. |Weaknesses Ã¢â¬â duplicate of the merchandise Ã¢â¬â Piracy of Tracks which are released through KARAOKE Ã¢â¬â hazardous promotional Tactics. giving free paths ab initio for publicity where the Competitors donÃ¢â¬â¢t. Ã¢â¬â Heavy investing needed. | Opportunities Ã¢â¬â As it is Interesting for the Childs to utilize Ã¢â¬â support from music composers and record labels to advance the Merchandise Ã¢â¬â it is a free Application Software. which acts like a societal networking Ã¢â¬â immature coevalss involvement in music and doing music. |Threats Ã¢â¬â new clients exchanging to Similar Forthcoming merchandises. Ã¢â¬â people should afford to pass money for purchasing vocals and Karaoke Tracks. Ã¢â¬â monetary value / characteristic war with rivals Ã¢â¬â composers can officially let go of karaoke versions themselves. which would impact them the most once more | As the SWOT Analysis emcing the Competitors shows that KARAOKE offers a better trade and new interesting Elementss which would achieve success in market with the Younger coevalss Interest on it. Though it has its ain failings and menaces. by more offers and Ads and Development of the Product will assist the merchandise to stand up in the Market. KARAOKE is Unique in its ain sort as mentioned earlier and there is no similar merchandise this. though it has rivals. The viing web site are expensive and does non offer any New paths Usually which would do lose involvement among the Youngsters. who seek latest updates. even when few Web sites offer they are Illegal downloads with Poor Quality. KARAOKE would move as a Social Networking piece. which would affect the Younger coevals to pass Quality clip on it. this will give back the senses to the consumers where they get used to Buying vocals and Karaoke paths for minimum monetary value instead downloading it illicitly. The Strength of the Product lies in support from the Composers. Artist and the Record labels. as this is a new Innovation where people would wish to Invest and do money in return and this would pay the Royalty for the Artist and composer every bit good. By analysis the features of the rivals has been revealed where they are expensive and drawbacks in different signifiers. this would give back life to the karaoke involved Entertainment. 9. Customers The First set of Target Customers are the Younger Generation between the Age of 16 Ã¢â¬â 35 who are prone users of Social Networking like Facebook and chirrup. where the people who are interested in seeking new Merchandises. that makes them happy and Interactive. Thus KARAOKE would function as a medium for their Social interaction through karaoke paths and their vocalizing abilities. The following set of Target Customers will be from all age group who are Music lovers and who love to Sing. even if they are recreational vocalists. so this Merchandise will make justness to users from School pupils to working Professionals. This Merchandise will be good to the Aged people who are interested in singing supplications vocals and other spiritual vocals by themselves. Peoples From Different provinces of India would Buy and seek out Other Language paths in which they are Familiar and interested to prosecute. there are few Consumers who would cognize more than one linguistic communication and are interested in all linguistic communication vocals. this merchandise will assist to work out their demands. As there are Consumers from Different parts of India where each one has different involvement towards karaoke and Social Networking every bit good. this would assist to widen the market. As Peoples outside India are interested In Indian Songs and Indian Karaoke Tracks. they would even buy their likes from this Merchandise and this will assist in widening the market of the Product Internationally and Developing the Merchandise. India ranks 3rd in the usage of Social Networking Websites. There are 62 713 650 Facebook users as per the statistics record which has been taken late. where 48 % users are from the Age group 18 Ã¢â¬â 24 and 27 per centum users from the Age Group 25 Ã¢â¬â 34. which contains the bulk of more than 75 % below the age group of 35 which shows a figure around 47 035 238. Where most of the Childs will be Music lovers and interested in doing karaoke vocals Songs when something new is projected. even when merely 2 % of the people are interested from the age group 18 -35. there would be about 311 650 consumers for this merchandise. So this will be a certain figure where people will be interested in utilizing the Product which is Absolutely good for a new Merchandise during it launch. 10. Budget Initially the Business squad garlic necessitate a Time period of Six months for Developing the Software and Trouble hiting them. to do it perfect during the launch of the Product. it may take a month supernumerary for Fine tuning the merchandise for better Outcome. The Initial Investment for the First Six months including Software developing and assorted disbursals instead than Software Development will be ?12000 ( INR = 10. 68. 000 ) and ?4000 ( INR 3. 56. 000 ) severally. After finishing the Product and after rectifying the Products errors. the Product will be ready for it Launch. After the launch we need farther investings for Promotion and increasing figure of users. After the Launch. The fresherÃ¢â¬â¢s who are new to the Product will be Given a Free vocal of their ain pick. where it is approximately calculated with the figure of consumers estimated above. which would be about ?35 016 ( INR 31. 16. 500 ) where it is a whooping investing. after they invite Twenty more people to the Web and as they join the web application. the Invite would be Giver and extra free vocal where the figures are calculated at the upper limit and the maximal disbursal would be ?35 016 once more. The estimated Profit Margin will get down after One twelvemonth of the merchandise launch as it a new investing. where as if the Product is successful shortly and has many consumers. they get back the initial in Six Months clip. Ads for the Products will be ?3000 which can be compensated with the money the merchandise earns through Ads about films and music Album on the Official web page. As the Product gets households the advertizements gross for the Product will besides Increase. the estimation net income Margin on the sec on twelvemonth will be 30 % ensuing in a net net income of ?60. 000. 11. INITIAL INVESTMENT An estimated Initial Investment of ?16000 + ?73 032 in six month interval severally. a Sum of ?89032 will be needed for the Product. Which would include the Web development and Server direction cost including a amount of ?12000 and ?4000 for the Miscellaneous disbursals. this would cover all the disbursals including the labour charges and transit. Where ? 3000 from the whole Budget will be allocated for the Celebrity Advertisements and advertizements through other mediums. Free Ads of Facebook and chirrup would non incur any charges where they are reciprocally good. The projection is that at least 2 % of the entire societal Networking circle start utilizing the Product which will be about 311 650 consumers Using the Product. In the First Three Months 25 % from the merchandise consumers. which will hold 77912 consumers will purchase at least One vocal at a lower limit rate which would lend the gross at ? 8735. in the following Three months which Six months all together will hold 50 % of the consumer purchasing at least One vocal which would give another ? 8735. and the merchandise will be gaining through Ads of the web page which will lend a lower limit of ?3000 in the first six months which will bit by bit increase. Thus the Initial investing demands are explained. 12. Barriers Internal Barriers The Internal Barriers which could originate is. Effective investings from the Investors with Confidence to Bring up a Good Quality Product and the Time for Testing the Product and problem shot may take much clip as predicted to be. It could take Six to nine months for Marketing the Product through publicity and do the Product Familiar with the Consumers. This my be due to unanticipated Fortunes such as unwellness. occupation resettlement. etc. External Barriers Ageless Barriers would originate by the Lack of Potential Investors. who can get by up with the Development of the merchandise. Finding a Good Software development and waiter direction squad could besides be a barrier. Technical barriers like the velocity and effectivity of the merchandise in nomadic phones and Tablets could originate. Ads should make the consumers good before the merchandise is launched. Effective Competitors
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Wast Management in Construction and Demolition - Research Paper Example C&D waste would typically include most construction materials, such as concrete, wood, metals, gypsum wallboard, asphalt, and roofing materials; some have the opinion, however, that land-clearing debris that includes soil, tree stumps, and rocks should be included among C&D waste. Some would not consider these waste as they are materials that naturally occur in such form in nature, and are merely being relocated from the construction site. Some consider them as within the scope of C&D waste that must be addressed, because in the course of construction they would normally be hauled away for disposal (EPA, 2000, p. 2-1). 1.1. Historical background of C&D waste management and recycling industry There was a time when buildings were made to last, and it was not unusual to plan for structures to last for a hundred years or more. More recently, however, the Ã¢â¬Å"throwaway societyÃ¢â¬ made it a practice to regularly demolish relative new buildings in order to build new ones in its place , which were deemed better suited to the changing tastes and needs of society. The forecast is that between 2000 and 2030, about 50% of all buildings at present shall be reconstructed, and 27% will be completely replaced. According to Priesnitz (2007:21), this practice is now viewed as wasteful and environmentally unsustainable. As a consequence, the green building industry focuses on creating structures that will last a long time, consistent with former practices. However, unlike the earlier practices, the new state of the art is aimed at creating structure that easily adapt and may be completely recycled if need be, instead of just being made to endure in the same state forever. The C&D recycling industry in the U.S. began to take shape in the 1990s, when Ã¢â¬Å"greenÃ¢â¬ construction philosophies became the norm among companies in line with efforts to promote their corporate citizenship and social responsibility thrusts. In order to keep up with the competition, there likewise emerged the need to acquire Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification for renovations as well as new structures. LEED points are awarded construction firms which have effectively implemented C&D waste management programs (Fickes, 2011). Aside from internal industry competitive pressures, government regulation had a lot to do with the furtherance of systematic C&D waste recycling. Many localities, including several counties in California, Oregon, and Washington, and the state of Massachusetts, had banned outright the disposal of C&D waste in landfills. Furthermore, landfill fees have steadily increased, increasing the costs to construction companies and fuelling the incentive to recycle C&D wastes. By 2009, the industry has grown to the point that Waste Management Inc. of Houston and McGraw Hill Construction of Massachusetts collaborated in profiling the fledgling C&D recycling industry, with some 200 building contractors surveyed and growth projections draw n until 2014. Their study shows that presently, contractors generate as much as 143 million tons of C&D waste yearly; roughly one-fourth of this (approximately 35 million tons) is recycled (Fickes, 2011:78). 1.2 Description and classification of C&D wastes The definition of C&D waste is a matter of importance, because the nature of the waste matter and the degree to which it is not contaminated by other waste materials determines the manner